Computer programming used to be mysterious and only a handful of people used to be skilled in it. However, things have changed today, when coding is considered as essential as mathematics. Openings for different IT jobs have been created and most of them require basic knowledge of emerging programming languages. 

If you are developing an application, you may wonder what are some of the most popular programming languages today. It takes time and other resources to learn a programming language. So, you want to learn the top programming languages to ensure that your application is efficient. 

When you are making this decision, you should consider different factors: 

  • The difficulty level that you are willing to tackle. 
  • The programming languages you already know and whether the other language matches with the current one. 
  • The reason for learning the top programming languages. 

As you move forward in your life as a software engineer, you will start to discover the programming languages which are most suitable for you. You may learn a programming language because of your career goals or because of a specific project. 

No matter, what the reason is these are some of the best programming languages to learn in 2023. 

  • JavaScript

JavaScript is efficient in creating dynamic, single-page web applications. It is one of the most important languages to learn today and you cannot be called a software developer if you do not know it. JavaScript is mostly used for front-end web development. It is one of the programming languages used in most popular websites like Facebook, Youtube, Gmail, and Twitter. With JavaScript, you can create interactive web pages which dynamically display information to the end user. 

The beauty of JavaScript is that it is primarily a front-end development language, but it can also be used on the server side through Node.js. The syntax of JavaScript is popular for being flexible, that’s why it is one of the most user-friendly programming languages. 

Originally, JavaScript was used to develop web browsers, but now they are used for server-side website development and application development as well. As one of the top programming languages, it has evolved with time. 

  • Python

Python is one of the most popular programming languages today and is also extremely easy to learn. It is an open-source programming language that comes with extensive support modules, community development, easy integration with other web services, user-friendly data structures, and GUI-based desktop applications. It is one of the best programming languages to learn today because it works well with machine learning. 

Python has been used to develop 2D and 3D tools like Blender, Inkscape, and Autodesk. It is so powerful that some of the most popular video games like Civilization IV, Vegas Trike, and Toontown are also developed with it. The upside of using python is that it is a highly readable programming language. 

  • SQL

SQL is used to efficiently use data in web applications. This specific language doesn’t work to develop aspects of an application or website. It is used to store, extract, and manipulate data within an existing database. 

Most websites or applications cannot exist without a properly planned database. SQL is the language that makes database management easier for software engineers. 

SQL has its own markup which must be learned to effectively communicate with databases. 

A lot of applications collect large amounts of data. It is one thing to develop the front-end interface of the application, but how will you manage the database? If you are interested in that, then you should learn SQL. It is popularly used in social media applications, music platforms, streaming services, payment processors, etc. 

Once you have collected the information of the user, you have to keep it safe to win their trust. That’s why SQL is on the list of the most popular programming languages. 

  • Go

Go is one of the core programming languages developed by Google. It is especially useful when it comes to handling APIs and web applications. In recent years, Go has quickly grown to become one of the most known programming languages. The reason for the same is its ability to handle multicore and networked systems with massive codebases. 

The full form of Go is Golang, it was developed for software engineers who are working on large and complicated projects. It quickly gained popularity among IT firms because of its modern structure and syntax familiarity. 

Some big-shot companies like Uber, Dropbox, Google, and Twitch use this language. Go is one of the top programming languages for data scientists because of its agility. 

The language is easy to learn if you know any other programming language. If you are a complete beginner, then you need patience to learn it. However, once you have understood this language you are likely to use it for most of the projects. 

  • Java

Jave is an object-oriented programming language used for general purposes. One of the best things about this programming language is that it is independent of any platform. It runs on the simple principle of writing once and runs anywhere. Java is recognized as a highly portable language. Today almost three billion devices run applications that were created using Java. if you want to ensure your success as a software engineer, Java is one of the best programming languages to learn. 

Java is widely used for web development and application development. It is one of the programming languages used in most popular websites like Google, Amazon, Twitter, and Youtube. Java is used for the backend of these sites. 

The programming language has an extensive community that can provide you with support while you are developing your website or application. That’s why Java is still one of the most popular programming languages. 

  • PHP

PHP is an open-source programming language used to create the majority of the websites available on the internet. It was started in the 90s and it is still going strong.

That’s why you can consider it one of the top programming languages. Some of the most notable sites like Facebook and Yahoo use PHP. It is mainly used to write high-quality server-side scripts. 

However, programmers with high-level skills in PHP can use it to develop desktop applications too. PHP is considered one of the languages that a beginner can learn. 

If you studied software engineering in college, you will be taught PHP. Along with that, this language can be used to create applications that can serve an actual purpose. 

That’s why it is one of the best programming languages to learn. PHP professionals have access to a dedicated community where they can get answers to any problems that they may face. 

  • C#

C# is based on the idea of object-oriented programming. It was developed by Microsoft and it became famous in the 2000s. It is one of the most popular programming languages in the .NET framework. C# is more like C++ than it is like Java. C# is best suited for applications on Windows, and Android. It is used as the back end of many popular programming websites like Bing, Dell, Visual Studio, and MarketWatch. 

To start with C#, you need a basic understanding of how to write code. If you do not know that, then you will have to get started with some other language. It is a cross-platform language, which means that it can be used to create mobile applications as well as enterprise software applications. 

C# is the successor of C++ but it has not been able to become as popular as Java. it is fast, scalable, and easy to use. This programming language is interoperable with other codes. It is a bit less flexible than other programming languages since it is completely dependent on Microsoft’s .NET framework

If you are looking to develop an application that will be used by people who are dependent on Microsoft’s platform then go ahead. 

  • Kotlin

Kotlin is a general-purpose programming language developed by JetBrains in 2011. It is interoperable with Java and supports other functional programming languages. Kotlin is a powerful programming language mainly used for application development. It can be an android app, web app, desktop app, and other server-side applications. 

The goal of Project Kotlin was to develop a language that is more powerful than Java. Now, those who use this language strongly agree with the same. Most of the google applications are built using Kotlin. Other major corporations like Pinterest, Coursera, and PostMates also use Kotlin as their primary programming language. 

While this language is very potent it is not suitable for those who do not have adequate knowledge of programming. Especially, because you need prior experience with programming languages like Java. If you are looking to get started with programming, then you should start with some other language instead of Kotlin. 

Today, the goal has been to shift a lot of applications to android. Kotlin is used to develop android applications and that is why it has made this list. The reason that it is becoming increasingly popular is that it is less code-heavy, unlike languages like Java. 

While the programming language wished to be better than Java, even its developers knew that they cannot completely replace Java. That’s why they decided to make this language compatible with Java but provide better functionality than Java.

  • Swift

Swift was developed by Apple for Linux and Mac applications. It is an open-source programming language that is easy to learn. You can learn the language and develop a basic application within the first few months. If you want to learn the language, all you need is the time to read a few coding tutorials and then practice the programming language. 

Swift supports other programming languages and it requires fewer coding skills compared to some of the other languages in this list. The problem with Swift is that it is limited to iOS applications. 

However, since iOS is not going anywhere this language is also not going to disappear from the market. Swift programmers are in high demand by companies that want to develop an iOS application or game. 

Some of the benefits of this language are clean syntax, fewer lines of code, open-source, faster than competing programming languages, etc. 

Despite everything, it is still a young language, so before you start developing a language by using Swift, you should be sure that this is what you want. 

  • Ruby

If you want to start learning a language, which is relatively simple to learn, your choice should be Ruby. It comes with a more human-friendly syntax while still having all the benefits of an object-oriented programming language. The web application framework which is implemented in Ruby is Ruby on Rails (ROR). Ruby developers are extremely happy because the language is extremely easy to write, they can develop powerful applications with it, and the learning span is also considerably short. These attributes of the language have contributed to its growing community of developers. Today, many beginners learn Ruby as their first programming language. Once you feel comfortable with the language, you can start working on web-development projects. 

To develop a website with ruby, you need the ability to visualize what the users ideally want to see. One downside of the language is that despite being so effective, easy to understand, and flexible, it is still the least broadly used. However, its popularity is on the rise, and in the coming years, you will see many websites being powered by Ruby. If you are enthusiastic about website development, you should absolutely consider learning Ruby along with PHP. 


The intent of each programming language is different. Some programming languages are used for front-end application development, whereas others are used for back-end development. 

Even then, programming languages can be limited by platforms or their application. So, before you learn a programming language you should know what your goals are. Someone who wants to develop a website may need to focus on other languages like PHP and Ruby more. Whereas, if someone wants to work on the back end, they should primarily learn SQL. 

After analyzing all these different aspects, we have listed the languages that can help you develop and maintain the best applications. These are the languages, that you should learn this year.